By: Ali Abu-Dashish and Norhan Mahmoud
CAIRO, Dec. 16 (SEE)- The secret behind the continuity of pharaonic civilization for more than 3000 years, that did not recur with any other human civilization, is a phenomenon that should be interpreted. To understand rationally how pharaohs succeeded, one must not only define factors behind this exceptional civilization but also study and analyze them.
“Undoubtedly, Egypt’s nature is the main factor behind this age-old resistance,” confirmed Archaeologist Dr. Zahi Hawass. “Egypt embraces a resourceful desert; rich of diversified rocks and minerals, most significantly gold. This desert is split up by a generous river; the Nile which its banks embrace a lively heaven that people live holding their customs, habits and beliefs.”
Factually, the desert naturally protects the east and west of Egypt and the Mediterranean was a hard-to-cross north water barrier followed by the dreadful habitats of delta home to snakes, scorpions and predatory animals.
To the south, this benevolent Nile that never scrimped to protect Egypt through natural barriers namely waterfalls, that are huge granite rocks that object watercourse of fierce stream currents dangerous to penetrate beaming safety all over the land.
Of course, natural factors were not the only reason behind the continuity of Egypt’s civilization and the presence of various lands similar to Egypt without any known achievements. Thus, the issue is based on people and their ability to build a civilization.
“Ancient Egyptians were genuine when they set up the first scientific base of what we currently call ‘Statistics’ which verbally means numbering. Here we find Egyptians and their creative abilities in studying and researching all the potential of their country from dawn of history to benefit most from these resources,” explained Hawass.
Actually, the genuineness of ancient Egyptians is apparent in setting up a managerial system that relies on the availability of critical information. “They have counted everything; population, livestock, birds, seeds, etc., besides registering agricultural lands and its ownership and the Nile river’s water levels and its height at the peak of floods. Such records were helpful in installing a tight taxes system.”
Enumeration was carried out in Egypt every two years, and sometimes yearly under the supervision of ministers and officials, responsible to approve statistics and inventory.
“Strict penalties were followed in cases of tax evasion; walls of tombs embrace screens of trials of tax evaders and even beating punishments. Enumeration was only halted in times of weakness and foreign invasions, but with every renaissance Egypt evolved one more time to put forward data laws for the administrative body to aid in decision making and implementation,” elaborated Hawass.
Inside Saqqara’s old state tombs, one can find the most vivid screens of statistics. Layouts of livestock enumeration are found inside the Middle Kingdom’s tombs, the most popular is that of ‘Ra.’
Lastly, in both the modern kingdom and late eras screens of statistics and census became vital scenes on the walls of tombs, depicting even the enumeration of gifts given to Pharaoh, the number of soldiers and their weapons