Psoriasis is a genetic skin disease associated with the immune system. Psoriasis is not contagious, according to <a href="https:\/\/see.news\/?s=Magdy+Badran" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Dr. Magdy Badran<\/a>.\r\n\r\nIt is characterized by itchy scales, inflammation, and redness. It usually occurs on the scalp, knees, elbows, hands, and feet.\r\n<h4><span style="color: #ff00ff;"><strong>Psoriasis is an Autoimmune Disease<\/strong><\/span><\/h4>\r\nYour immune system causes your skin cells to reproduce too quickly. A normal skin cell matures and falls off the body's surface in 28 to 30 days.\r\n\r\nHowever, skin affected by psoriasis takes only three to four days to mature and move to the surface. Instead of falling off (shedding), the cells pile up and form lesions. The skin also becomes very red due to increased blood flow.\r\n\r\nPsoriasis is an autoimmune disease. Immune cells in the blood mistakenly recognize newly produced skin cells as foreign invaders and attack them.\r\n\r\nThis can cause the overproduction of new skin cells beneath the surface of the skin. The new cells migrate to the surface and force out existing skin cells. That causes the scales, itching, and inflammation of psoriasis.\r\n<h4><strong><span style="color: #ff00ff;">Genetics<\/span><\/strong><\/h4>\r\nPsoriasis, a chronic and inflammatory skin disease, is considered a hereditary condition. Genetics almost certainly plays a role. Having a family member with the disease increases the risk.\r\n\r\nAround 10% of the population inherit one or more of the genes that increase the chance of developing psoriasis. However, only 2\u20133% of the population will develop it.\r\n\r\nIf one of your parents has psoriasis, you have about a 10 % chance of getting it. If both of your parents have psoriasis, your risk is 50 percent. About one-third of people diagnosed with psoriasis have a relative with psoriasis.\r\n\r\nThe reason that some people with the genetic features do not develop psoriasis is that: they may not have the right collection of genetic features or they may not have had exposure to specific environmental triggers.\r\n\r\nThis suggests that both environmental triggers and genes play a role in whether a person will develop psoriasis.\r\n<h4><span style="color: #ff00ff;"><strong>Environmental Factors<\/strong><\/span><\/h4>\r\nMany genes must interact for psoriasis to develop. In addition to genes, a person\u2019s immune system plays a role in psoriasis risk. If you have the genes for psoriasis, you need to be exposed to a trigger for it to develop.\r\n\r\nEnvironmental factors that may trigger a psoriasis onset or flare-up include stress, cold and dry weather, a severe sunburn, HIV infection, drugs such as lithium, beta-blockers, and antimalarials or withdrawal of corticosteroids. Infections, especially strep throat in young people, is reported as a trigger for psoriasis onset.\r\n\r\nInjury or trauma to a portion of the skin may sometimes become the site of a psoriasis flare-up.\r\n\r\nIn one study of women with psoriasis, about 10% of the participants had also developed an inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn\u2019s disease or ulcerative colitis.\r\n<h4><span style="color: #ff00ff;"><strong>Psoriasis and Obesity<\/strong><\/span><\/h4>\r\nEvidence is strongly suggestive that obesity through pro-inflammatory pathways predisposes to the development of psoriasis and that obesity aggravates existing psoriasis.\r\n\r\nIn recent decades, the prevalence of immune-mediated diseases in industrialized nations has been increasing and also there is evidence that the epidemiology of psoriasis seems to be changing.\r\n\r\nA 2009 US study demonstrated that the incidence of psoriasis among adults had almost doubled between the 1970s and 2000. Given the fact that the genetic basis has remained constant, awareness is increasing that factors in the environment including the Western lifestyle play a major role in this growing prevalence.\r\n\r\nThe dietary habits in industrialized nations promote high-fat, high-salt, high-sugar diets with excess caloric intake resulting in an obesity epidemic.\r\n\r\nThe possible link between autoimmunity and obesity has become even more relevant since the discovery that white adipose tissue is not just an inert energy storage tissue.\r\n\r\nIt is now known that adipose tissue is an essential endocrine organ secreting a wide range of soluble mediators involved in immunity, inflammation, and metabolic and appetite regulation.\r\n\r\nThe soluble mediators released from white adipose tissue possess pro-inflammatory actions and contribute to the low-grade inflammatory state in obese individuals.\r\n\r\nThis pro-inflammatory state, generated by obesity, may be a key factor in the association between adiposity and inflammatory\/autoimmune.\r\n\r\nIn psoriasis, epidemiological evidence is increasing and suggests that patients may be more adipose compared to individuals without psoriasis. The immunological mechanisms in psoriasis and obesity show considerable overlap.\r\n\r\nNumerous mechanisms may be involved in explaining the link between psoriasis and obesity. Patients with psoriasis may have a higher risk of social isolation, poor eating habits, depression, decreased physical activity and increased alcohol consumption.\r\n<h4><strong><span style="color: #ff00ff;">Cigarettes and Alcohol Affect Psoriasis<\/span><\/strong><\/h4>\r\nSmokers with a family history of psoriasis increase their risk as much as nine times. Smoking and alcohol use increase the risk of developing psoriasis and may make the disease significantly worse.\r\n\r\nSmoking affects the onset of psoriasis and its clinical appearance. Smoking doubles a person's risk of getting psoriasis; the risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and is higher in women than men.\r\n\r\nThe risk for women who smoke more than 20 cigarettes per day is about 2.5 times greater than the rate of nonsmokers, and in men, the risk is about 1.7 times greater than the rate of nonsmokers.\r\n\r\nStudies have also found a very strong association between smoking and palmoplantar pustulosis. Smoking and alcohol may also be associated with the same psychosocial factors that may drive psoriases, such as stress, worry, and poor coping skills.\r\n\r\nAlcohol can have dangerous side effects when combined with certain psoriasis medications, such as methotrexate or acitretin in women of child-bearing potential.\r\n<h4><span style="color: #ff00ff;"><strong>Psoriasis Symptoms<\/strong><\/span><\/h4>\r\nDry, thick, and raised patches on the skin are the most common sign of psoriasis. These patches are often covered with a silvery-white coating called scale, and they tend to itch.\r\n\r\nThe cracked skin may bleed. Most types of psoriasis go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a time or even going into complete remission.\r\n\r\nThese symptoms can have a physical and emotional impact on a person and affect their quality of life.\r\n<h4><span style="color: #ff00ff;"><strong>Types of Psoriasis<\/strong><\/span><\/h4>\r\nPlaque psoriasis is the most common form. It causes dry, raised, red skin lesions (plaques) covered with silvery scales.\r\n\r\nThe plaques might be itchy or painful and there may be few or many. They can occur anywhere on the body, including genitals and the soft tissue inside the mouth.\r\n\r\nNail psoriasis. Psoriasis can affect fingernails and toenails, causing pitting, abnormal nail growth, and discoloration. Psoriatic nails might loosen and separate from the nail bed (onycholysis). Severe cases may cause the nail to crumble. Around 80% of people with psoriatic arthritis develop nail changes.\r\n\r\nGuttate psoriasis, this type primarily affects young adults and children. It's usually triggered by a bacterial infection such as strep throat. It's marked by small, water-drop-shaped, scaling lesions on your trunk, arms, legs, and scalp.\r\n\r\nInverse psoriasis, this mainly affects the skin in the armpits, in the groin, under the breasts, and around the genitals.\r\n\r\nInverse psoriasis causes smooth patches of red, inflamed skin that worsen with friction and sweating. Fungal infections may trigger this type of psoriasis.\r\n\r\nPustular psoriasis, this uncommon form of psoriasis can occur in widespread patches (generalized pustular psoriasis) or smaller areas on your hands, feet or fingertips. It generally develops quickly, with pus-filled blisters appearing just hours after your skin becomes red and tender. The blisters may come and go frequently.\r\n\r\nGeneralized pustular psoriasis can also cause fever, chills, severe itching and diarrhea.\r\n\r\nPsoriatic arthritis, in addition to inflamed, scaly skin, psoriatic arthritis causes swollen, painful joints that are typical of arthritis. Symptoms range from mild to severe, and psoriatic arthritis can affect any joint.\r\n\r\nSometimes the joint symptoms are the first or only manifestation of psoriasis or at times only nail changes are seen.\r\n<h4><strong><span style="color: #ff00ff;">Tips for Psoriasis Skin Care<\/span><\/strong><\/h4>\r\nIf you don't smoke, don't start. If you do smoke, consider stopping\u2014you may have a higher likelihood of remission. Don't drink. Psoriasis may improve with weight loss.\r\n\r\nFocus on positive, healthy ways to cope with stress and anxiety\u2014try meditation, counseling, adequate sleep, healthy diet, and exercise.\r\nKeep your skin moist. It can help your skin heal and reduce dryness, itching, redness, soreness, and scaling.\r\n\r\nAvoid harsh products like lotions with alcohol, deodorant soaps, acids, and some laundry soaps. Choose your moisturizer based on how dry your skin is.\r\n\r\nOintments are thick, heavy, and good at locking in moisture. Lotions are thinner and get absorbed more easily. Or, you can pick a cream that falls somewhere in between.\r\n\r\nAfter your bath or shower is a good time to gently pat on the lotion. Reapply throughout the day and when you change clothes. Use more on cold or dry days.\r\n\r\nTry not to scratch and pick. Keep your nails short. Take an antihistamine if you are itchy. A daily warm bath using a mild soap can help soothe itchy spots and remove dry skin.\r\n\r\nHot temperatures and harsh soaps can be hard on the skin that's already sensitive. Take 15 minutes to soak in the warm water. Try not to rub your skin with the towel as you dry off.\r\n\r\nThe ultraviolet light in sunlight can slow the growth of skin cells, so small doses of the sun can be a good way to soothe, improve, and even heal psoriasis lesions.