The Egyptologist Hussein Bassir stated that “Heliopolis” doctrine implies both the universe creation and the political system.
According to this doctrine, Ra-Atum’s had a great force which led to creation of the first twin; ‘Shou’, meaning the air, and ‘Tafnout’; denoting humidity or dew.
The amulet number 76 in the coffins’ texts, in the book of the dead, states that “when God Ra-Atum spit out, ‘Tafnout’ and ‘Shou’ were created”.
‘Shou’ was a male and ‘Tafnout’ was a female and they were two separated creatures but completing each other to continue the mating and reproduction chain. After these two couples got married, they gave birth to another couple which is Geb and Nut.
‘Geb’ was the earth representing male, while ‘Note’ was the sky representing female.
At this moment, the universe’s main elements became clear and everything was ready to welcome the coming creatures.
‘Note’ was portrayed several times as a curved naked goddess who touches the whole universe by her hands and legs.
She was also drawn while making love with the naked God of Earth as a symbolic relationship to continue the reproduction cycle.
This couple gave birth to a third pair in a row which was God ‘Ozir’, symbol of goodness and organization, and Goddess ‘Ezes’, his sister and later his wife.
Finally, the 4th couple was ‘Set’, symbol of chaos, contradiction and his sister ‘Neftes’, his wife later.
Those 9 Gods were the fundamental elements of Heliopolis doctrine and were responsible of the universe creation.
The existence of God of chaos among this great religious doctrine was necessary to interpret the continuous conflict between both good and evil forces.
Set’s role in the whole system was realistic and he had an endless struggle with God Ozir; symbol of goodness and justice
In another moment, when Shou and Tafnot lost in the eternal water of the Nile river, their father Atum sent his eyes to search for them.
Right after they returned back, Atum’s eyes filled with tears of joy; from which human beings were created.
Thus according to this doctrine, the existence of humanity occurred by chance and not according to a planned methodology.
Human beings were just created as a result of an emotional situation, that’s why the ancient Egyptian paid little attention to this issue.
On the other hand, Heliopolis doctrine was also closely related to God of the sun.
The ancient Egyptian believed that sunrise guarantees the continuity and eternity of the universal order and the prevailing royal political system as well.
This doctrine is also called “Hermobolies” and it has a different point of view regarding the origins of universe creation.
It sees that the creation process took place after 4 couples first appeared on a silt hill.
The 4 males were frogs and the 4 females were snakes.
The first couple was the male “Nu”, the female “Tont” and they were representing the eternal water.
The second couple was husband “Ku”, wife “Kuket” and they represented the darkness.
The third couple represented the infinity concept and they were the husband “Hu” and his wife “Huhet”.
“Amun” and “Amunt” was the last couple and they represented the hideousness.
Both Amun and Amunt travelled to “Tiba” and were buried in Habu city in the west bank of Luxor.
At this time, a goose laid a super egg that converted the darkness into an absolute light; which was the sun.
Ater that, the goose had its “great scream” which put an end to the world’s silence.
It’s worth mentioning that Ashmomen is a current area in Minia governorate in Egypt.
This doctrine is the oldest religious one that interpreted the origins of creation process.
It’s also called “Mamfes” and was written on a stone board; which dates back to King El Koshy era and the 25th dynasty.
In brief, the doctrine considered that God Betah; the main God in Menf city, was the one who first created the whole world.
This took place after he was thinking by his heart; place of mind, then using his tongue to express what was inside the heart.
This is how the ancient Egyptians interpreted origins of the universe and developed religious thoughts before the emergence of divine religions.
Contributed by Salma Yassin