Sinai witnessed throughout the history of its religious, military and economic importance to Egypt, and the Muslims armies marched on its soil across the different eras of Egypt's history.\r\n\r\nSinai land was famous in ancient Egyptian history for the turquoise and copper mines that the Egyptians used in making utensils and jewelry; it remains a unique witness to Egypt\u2019s civilization.\r\n\r\nIt is considered as the oldest war route in the history of the ancient world; it is the way that Egypt's armies marched to Asia. They also followed the armies of the Assyrians, Persians and Alexander who conquered Egypt.\r\n\r\nMeanwhile, the Egyptians took advantage of the mines of the Serabit el-Khadem area in South Sinai and built the temple of Hathor during the reign of 1st Senusert. They left hundreds of inscriptions and paintings, which contain kings\u2019 names.\r\n\r\nNorth Sinai witnessed limited commercial activity during the ancient and central state until Egypt came under the Hyksos rule.\r\n\r\nThen, Hyksos realized the importance of protecting and fortifying the eastern borders on the ancient war route between Egypt and Palestine known as the Horus Military Road, and established castles, forts, and wells.\r\n\r\nThe Horus War road was one of the most important military roads established in ancient Egypt throughout its history, and documents such as; King City I and his campaign on Palestine spoke about it; the road started from Qantara Sharq to Rafah and its features were engraved on the Karnak Temple walls.\r\n\r\nThe ancient Egyptian civilization was distinguished, during the different eras, by the richness in Egyptians\u2019 achievements in general and a special face in Sinai.\r\n\r\nSince the beginning of the 1st family in Egypt, activity in Sinai to extract copper and turquoise was intensified as indicated by the Egyptian texts. In the 3rd family there was a clear interest in Sinai.\r\n\r\nKing Sneferu took care of securing mines and quarries, so garrisons were established and water wells were drilled along the roads leading to mines and quarries. A group of inscriptions from Sneferu era and Sneferu pictures were found in Serabit el-Khadem, chastising outlaws and threatening mining missions.\r\n\r\nThe archaeological areas in Sinai were numerous and El-Arish was one of the most important ancient Egyptian ports as well as Sheikh Zuweid hill, which was one of the important areas on the Horus War Road between Qantara and Gaza.\r\n\r\nOther sites include Bir al-Abed and Tal Habboh, housing more than fortress dating back to the Hyksos period as well as Qantara Sharq, which is based on the ruins of the ancient city of Tharo and was the oldest fortress defending the Egypt eastern borders.