The pharaohs adopt the stellar year to measure time, and they celebrated New Year’s Day on September 11 of each year.
What is so-called the Coptic months were names for pharaonic Gods or deities. These important events are not only in the history of the ancient Egyptian civilization but in the history of all mankind.
The pharaonic calendar had begun forty-third centuries BC when most countries of the world lived in the darkness of ignorance that clouded their minds and ideas.
The Egyptians used an astronomical calendar since ancient times and reached the invention of the year. This indicates that they were interested in studying the apparent movement of the sun among the fixed stars.
They deduced the length of the year from the length of the stellar year once a year, which is also an indicator of the coming of the flood. The invention of this system or calendar was in response to the flood system and the conditions of agriculture.
Egypt was from first sight an agricultural civilization because of the flood that led to the fertility of that land.
It contains everything such as the sun, the moon, the earth, life and the other world. If this indicates the extent of the awareness of the ancient Egyptian and the maturity of the idea of the enlightened in that old testament, and its resurrection with regular observations, it must be recorded in a type of writing, even in its early stages.
The ancient Egyptians noted that the flood is an annual phenomenon that occurs regularly and that the star of Sirius appears on the horizon with sunrise on the same day that the flood reaches the city of Memphis, the capital of Egypt at that time, where the Egyptian astronomers were “looking to the sky”.
The ancient Egyptians thought that the flood is the tears of Isis, as she was weeping for her husband, Osiris, as it is known in ancient Egyptian religion and myths
On the basis of this system, they arranged agricultural and operations and were able to invent the year consisting of 365 days and dividing the year into female ten months, as well as the month into thirty days divided into 3 weeks for each week of ten days, as well as dividing the day into hours.
The ancient Egyptians took the stellar year as a basic unit in measuring time and making the calendar and measuring this period of time and its amount is 365 and a quarter of a day with every accuracy.
On the first month of Tut, corresponding to September 11 of every normal year, and September 12 of every leap year.
It is worth noting that leap year consists of 366 days. Until now, the Coptic months still bear the names of a Pharaonic calendar as follows:
In the ancient Egyptian language, it means “going up” and the latter called it “the god of knowledge.” They used to celebrate it all over the country for a week, and the Copts still celebrate it now and call it Nowruz.
It means in hieroglyphics (bethbut), which is the god of agriculture when the land was covered with agricultural crops.
The name of the flower is the goddess of beauty because in this month the face of the earth is adorned with crops.
It is also attributed to Hathor (Hator) in the Coptic, the goddess of love and giving because it gives the earth its beauty.
In hieroglyphics, it was (Kahaka), which is the god of goodness or the sacred bull.
(Tobia) meaning the highest or the highest. Thebes the capital city of the Middle Kingdom in Ancient Egypt was named after this month.
It is the month of a festival associated with the god “Makher”, the god responsible for storms and tornadoes “Jaabib Mukher” means Meshir storms, and it is called with this name because in this month there are storms and continuous changes.
In the ancient Egyptian language, it means (bamont), which means heat, and agricultural crops ripen due to the heat of the weather.
It means (Parahamut), which is the God of the dead or the annihilation because in it the crops end after harvesting the fruits and also indicates the Pharaonic harvest festival (Ranuda).
it pronounced (Ba Khonsu), which means the God of darkness because the ancient Egyptians believe that it helps to remove darkness, and that is why the day is longer than the night.
It was pronounced as (Ba Uni), the god of minerals because in it the minerals and stones are equal, and that is why the common people call it the stone pan.
It was pronounced as (Hoba), which means the joy of heaven, because the Pharaohs rejoiced in it because they claimed that Hoodies, the God of the sun, took revenge on the father of Osiris, meaning the destruction of the enemy of Avon, i.e. the burning.
It was pronounced as (Masou Ra), meaning the birth of Ra, or (Sa Ra) the son of the sun. As for the remaining five days of the year, it was called “Koji Atavut” or the “little month.”
Thus, the Egyptians used the first astronomical calendar since ancient times and came to invent the year, and this indicates that they were interested in studying the apparent movement of the sun among the fixed stars.
Translated by Ahmed Moamar