The Muslim Council of Elders' pavilion at the Cairo International Book Fair 2024 presents the book "An Introduction to the Study of Traditional Logic" by His Eminence Dr. Ahmed Al-Tayeb, the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, and Chairman of the Muslim Council of Elders. The book provides a concise summary of the material on "Traditional Logic," represented in its two well-known sections among Muslims: "Concepts" and "Belief."
His Eminence the Grand Imam notes that two distinctive features define human beings among other creatures sharing life on the stage of the universe. Firstly, thinking or reason, and secondly, speech or language. Despite claims that animals participate in complex operations like thinking and intelligence, there is no doubt that humans differ from all other animals in mental capabilities not found in these animals. This includes the ability to convey thoughts and reflections outside of oneself, the unique capacity to judge right from wrong, truth from falsehood, and the exclusive ability to compare, deduce, and link results to their premises. If we were to describe humans in a way that isolates them entirely from other beings, we can say they are "thinking beings."
His Eminence also notes that this doesn't mean humans, as thinking beings, always think in a logically correct manner. People often misuse their minds or engage in improper thinking, resulting in incorrect conclusions from either correct or incorrect premises. Just as it is accepted that humans can make mistakes in using their language and choosing their words, they also need a law to guide them in speech to prevent errors arising from incorrect language use. This is guaranteed by the science of grammar or language in general. Similarly, as thinking beings, humans need a law to guide them and protect them from errors in thinking. This law that humans, as thinking beings, strongly require is "the science of logic."
The book is divided into five sections: the first, "Vocabulary Issues"; the second, "General Issues"; the third, "Definition"; the fourth discusses "Issues in Logic," and the fifth and final section is titled "Inference."