It is expected that Libya will hold the General Elections during 2021, the world hopes that the country will reach a solution for its crisis without foreign interferences.
2020 witnessed many and sporadic meetings between the Libyan factions in Arab and Western capitals.
Meetings and conferences were held in 2020 and some of them are still continuing, as the Libyans hope to contribute to extinguishing the explosions of gunpowder barrels and to put a solution to the sound of guns, and an end to their living crises that have worsened recently.
The outcomes of those conferences and negotiations between the Libyan parties, from Berlin to Tunis and from Cairo to Moscow, may constitute the basic building block for a final solution to the Libyan crisis.
Here are the meetings and conferences held by the Libyan parties with an Arab and international presence in order to resolve the crisis:
At the beginning of 2020, Germany held a conference on Libya on January 19, attended by officials of 11 countries, during which they agreed to unify Libyan institutions, stop foreign interference, respect the arms embargo imposed on Libya, and a ceasefire.
The solution required 3 tracks:
- A military committee was formed consisting of 10 officers, five from each side to define the mechanisms for implementing the ceasefire, in addition to disarming and dismantling the militias in Libya and relaunching the reconciliation path.
- A Political track subsequently led to an agreement on holding the general elections on December 24, 2021.
- Economic path, whereby oil production was restored and attempts to unify the central bank, the exchange rate, and other reforms.
Cairo Economic Meeting
About 10 days after the Berlin conference, the Egyptian capital, Cairo, hosted, on February 9 and 10, 2020, a round of economic track talks on Libya.
28 economic and financial experts participated in the meeting, during which it was agreed to form three committees: the Banking Committee that deals with the division in the banking system and the issues that follow it, the public revenue distribution committee after the controversy surrounding the mismanagement of public funds, and the Reconstruction and Development Committee.
Geneva talks (1)
It was launched coincided with the first round of meetings of the Joint Military Committee (5 + 5), which represents the military track of the Berlin outcomes.
Munich Security Conference
About 500 personalities, including 35 leaders of countries, participated in the conference that convened on February 15, and the meeting agreed on the need to adhere to the outcomes of the Berlin conference, abide by the ceasefire in Libya.
Geneva Talks (2)
In implementation of the outcomes of the Munich Security Conference, the second round of the Joint Military Commission talks began in Geneva on February 18.
This round was aimed at reaching a ceasefire between the two parties, disarming the armed militias, and turning the truce into a permanent ceasefire. However, the Government of National Accord (GNA) delegation announced that it would cease its participation in the talks.
Aquila Saleh’s first initiative
The initiative was based on 8 items, the most important of which is the formation of a new presidential council and a government of national unity, and the inability of the President of the Presidential Council and its deputies to run for the presidency of the state in the first presidential elections.
The Egyptian Initiative
The movement did not stop, but Cairo, the eastern neighbor of Libya, announced on June 6, 2020, a new initiative under the name “Cairo Declaration” to solve the Libyan crisis, which was revealed by Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El Sisi in the presence of the Libyan National Army Commander, Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar and the Speaker of the Libyan Parliament.
Arab League Initiative
The Arab League held an emergency meeting at the level of Arab foreign ministers, on June 23, in the presence of 21 Arab countries, which agreed on 14 items topped by the rejection of foreign interference in Libya.
Two months after the Egyptian initiative, which met with local, Arab and international acceptance, the head of what is known as the Presidential Council, Fayez al-Sarraj announced last August, an initiative to solve the Libyan crisis stipulating a ceasefire, and considering Sirte and Jufrah demilitarized areas secured by the police from the two sides.
Aquila Saleh’s second initiative
Al-Sarraj’s initiative coincided with the initiative of the President of the Libyan House of Representatives, which includes declaring a ceasefire throughout the country, starting to expel mercenaries, ending the Turkish and Qatari military presence
On September 6, a round of Libyan dialogue began in Bouznika on the outskirts of the Moroccan capital, Rabat, between two delegations from Tripoli and Tobruk.
In conjunction with the Bouznika dialogue, on September 10, representatives of the main Libyan actors held a meeting in the Swiss city of Montreux.
On September 29, meetings were held between Libyan military and security leaders representing the east and west of the country, in the Egyptian city of Hurghada, during which the parties agreed to form a joint military body that includes all Libyans and to distribute military positions according to the Libyan regions.
Bouznika Talks (2)
Days after the Hurghada meeting, Morocco hosted the second round of the Bouznika dialogue between 2 and 6 October last, and the delegations of the Libyan House of Representatives and the so-called Supreme Council of State signed a draft agreement on the criteria for selecting the occupants of the sovereign positions in Libya.
Berlin Talks (2)
On 5 last October, Germany held a virtual summit with the participation of United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres and a number of foreign ministers and representatives of the parties to the conflict in Libya for the return of commitment to the ceasefire.
On October 11, Cairo hosted meetings of representatives of the House of Representatives and the High State Council in Libya and members of the Constitutional Commission to discuss the constitutional path.
On October 23, the United Nations Support Mission in Libya announced the agreement of the Libyan Joint Military Committee (5 + 5) to install a ceasefire and reduce military escalation, as well as open air and land routes, and the exit of all fighters and mercenaries from the country, within 90 days, after forming a unified government.
Ghadames Military Talks
On November 4, the Libyan Joint Military Committee was held in Ghadames. They agreed on implementing the ceasefire agreement and forming a military sub-committee to oversee the return of all forces of the two sides to their headquarters and the withdrawal of foreign forces from Contact lines, and the choice of the city of Sirte as the headquarters of the Committee (5 + 5).
Days after the Geneva Agreement, the first dialogue sessions between the Libyan parties began in Tunis, between 9 and 16 November, under the supervision of the United Nations. They agreed to set the date for the national elections on December 24, 2021.
During the period between November 23 and 28, Morocco hosted the consultative meeting of members of the Libyan House of Representatives. The meeting agreed that the city of Benghazi would be the constitutional seat of the parliament.
On 30 November, representatives of the Libyan House of Representatives and the High State Council held a meeting in Tangiers, Morocco to discuss unifying sovereign institutions, and the meeting agreed to form a working group, a miniature of the dialogue team.