By: Ali Abu Dashish
CAIRO, Dec. 6 (SEE)- “Egypt” is the most important word in history and most important location in geography. It is not only the Nile’s gift, as Herodot mentioned, but it is the Egyptians’ gift as well. Pharaohs established their great civilization with the help of the river Nile.
On one hand the Nile played an important role in providing Egypt with a magnificent geographic nature. On the other hand, the Egyptian architecture played an important part in establishing these prestigious temples and pyramids.
There is a need to investigate what ancient Egyptians achieved in all fields, as till nowadays, all scientists are trying to solve the ancient Egyptian intelligence’s enigma.
Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass expressed that the reason behind the Pharaoh’s creativity is their belief in life after death. This belief pushed them to build the Pyramids whose secrets are still bewildering the whole world.
Regarding astrology, Pharaohs had significant achievements. They discovered the solar calendar, monitored stars and planets, registered natural phenomena, thus they managed to know the number of the year’s months and days.
Astrology, medical, engineering and scientists graduated from the universities of the ancient city of ‘Awn’ where the first theory about the universe’s creation and theories about arts, architect and literature were discovered.
In respect to the floods’ issue, Pharaohs knew how to protect tombs. Recently it was discovered that floods which used to enter the King’s Valley were strong and dangerous. These floods leaked out to tombs, causing their total damage. And then came the surprise, when experts discovered that Pharaohs studies the floods’ routes at the Valley’s east and west sides. Thus, in order to protect royal tombs, they devise a way to keep the tombs far from flood torrents.
Pharaohs were also clever at geology, especially the nature of mountains’ rocks and its cracks. Ancient Egyptian dug tombs opposite to cracks. In case cracks were in a horizontal position, then tombs were dug, but in case they were vertical, then tombs were not dug.
Experts discovered that ancient Egyptian architect designed plans and was responsible of following up with the digging process. In case faults were detected at rocks, then process was suspended and another place for digging was to be selected. So for any archaeologist, before working in a place, it is very important to study rocks and floods’ routes in order to determine the place where tombs are hidden.
Clear evidence is Hatshepsut’s tomb, the first tomb built at the Valley. The tomb was not built in the Valley itself, but in the back Valley, in other words, in the Valley’s narrow branch. Building the tomb in this location was to hide it from thieves. Another view says that tombs were dug higher than the ground level.
At the Valley’s eastern part, the way Pharaohs used to protect the Valley’s from floods was discovered. At the mountain’s top, a current was dug where floods were landing. Then canals transformed the water to the Valley’s ground far from tombs. Small dams were constructed inside these canals to slow down the water’s speed.
The method that Pharaohs used to dig at the King’s Valley drives us to be always keen on how they were thinking when they were building their tombs. They saw the tomb as the place to spend the other life, or as the ‘Ayaro’ paradise (the terminology used by Pharaohs to name paradise).
Thanks to believing in the other world, Pharaohs provided tombs with paintings that served as a guide to overcome obstacles and reach Osiris after life. In addition, Pharaohs placed tools and objects for the after life’s usage.
To sum up, believing in life after death in ancient time played a great to Egypt and its civilization.
Translator: Maydaa Abo El-Nadar